泛亚电竞在线

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在哈佛学什么? | 大学的精神

2016-05-17


泛亚电竞在线        BENWENJIEXUANZI《DAXUEDEJINGSHEN: JIAOYUSHIRANGYIGERENCHENGWEIZUIHAOBANBENDEZIJI》YISHU,ZHONGXINCHUBANSHECHUBAN。

泛亚电竞在线        ZHUANZI: ZHONGGUOJIAOYUSANSHIRENLUNTAN

       WENZHANGLIANJIE: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/n90joo18lfmFRUA72CemEA



       DUIYUYIGESHIJISUICHUCILIKAIJIAMEN,XINGJIANGTASHANGTONGCAIJIAOYUZHENGCHENGDEQINGSHAONIANLAISHUO,JINTIANYISUODIYILIUDEGAODENGXUEFUJIANGJITAYISHENMEYANGDEYINXIANGNI?TAJIANGYOUSINIANDESHIJIANQUZIYOUDIFAXIANZIJI——TABURUDAOYIGEKONGJIANZHONG,YIWANGPINFADEZHISHIHUANGMOBEITAZHUJIANPAOZAISHENHOU,ERHUODEXUESHIXUEWEIHOUNEIZHONGFAWEIDEZHUANYEXUNLIANSHANGWEILAILIN。

       ZAIDUANDUANDESINIANZHONG,TABIXULEJIE,ZAIYIWANGTASUOZHIXIAODENEIGEXIAOXIAODESHIJIEZHIWAIHAICUNZAIZHEGENGWEIGUANGKUODETIANDI,QINZILINGLVETADELEQU,CHONGFENJIQUZHISHIDEYINGYANG,YIZHICHENGZIJIQUZHENGFUNEIPIANZHUDINGYAOCHUANYUEDEZHISHIHUANGMO。ZHIYAOTAXIANGYAOHUOQURENHEGAOSHUIZHUNDESHENGHUO,TAJIUBIXUZHEIYANGQUZUO。

泛亚电竞在线        RUGUOTADEXUANZEBUJINJINXIANYUNEIXIEDANGSHILIUXINGDEHUOZHESHIZHIYEFAZHANSUOTIGONGDENEIRONG,ERSHIGUANZHUNEIXIENENGGOUSHITAZISHENQUANMIANFAZHANDEXUANZE,NEIMEDAXUESHENGHUOSHILINGRENSHENWANGMIZUIDE,TAKEYICHENGWEIZIJISUOQIWANGCHENGWEIDEYIQIE,QUGUANZHAOHESISUOZIJIDEZHONGZHONGXUANZE。

       DUIYUYIGEMEIGUORENLAISHUO,DAXUESUIYUEDEZHONGYAOXINGSHIZENMEGUJIYEBUHUIGUOFENDE。TAMENSHISHITAWENMINGKAIHUADEWEIYITUJING……MIANDUIZHEIYANGYIGEXINGJIANGJIESHOUJIAOYUDEREN,FANYADIANJINGZAIXIANBIXUSISUOZHEIYANGYIGEWENTI: RUGUOTANENGGOUBEICHENGWEISHOUGUODAXUEJIAOYU,TAYINGDANGXUEXISHENME?

       ——AILUN·BULUMU《MEIGUOJINGSHENDEFENGBI》


泛亚电竞在线        JUSHUO,ZAIMEIGEHAFORENDEYISHENGZHONG,DOUHUICHUXIANZHEIYANGDESHIKE,TAHUOTATURANYISHIDAOHAFODEMEILI。WOXIANGHENDUORENDENEIGESHUNJIANSHIZAINADAOZHANGDASHANGQIANYEDEXUANKEDAN,WEIZIJIXUANZEZAIHAFODEDIYIMENKEDESHIHOU。

       2013NIANHAFOXINDETONGSHIJIAOYUJIHUAZHENGSHITUIXING,ZHONGXINHUAFENLEXUESHENGXUYAOSHELIEDEHAFODAXUEJIAOYUFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANDEBIYESHENGCANJIABIYEDIANLIBADAZHISHIFANCHOULINGYU,YISHUYUQUANSHI、WENHUAYUXINYANG、JINGYANTUILI、LUNLITUILI、SHENGMINGXITONGKEXUE、WULISHIJIEKEXUE、SHIJIEZHONGDESHEHUI、SHIJIEZHONGDEMEIGUO,GONGJI400DUOMENKECHENG。


       HAFOXINTONGSHIJIAOYUJIHUA“YISHUYUQUANSHI”BANKUAIKECHENGNEIRONG:


       XIUCIDEYUANSU

       SHI、SHIRENYUSHIYI

       5BUYINLEZHUZUODESHOUCHANGYANCHU

       YIMENYISIDEYUYANZHONGDEAI: JINGDIANYINDUWENXUEYULILUN

       MEIGUOYINLEJUYUMEIGUOWENHUA

       FOJIAOYURIBENWENHUA

泛亚电竞在线        YISILANJIANZHUZHONGDEJINIANBEI

       WENXUEYUGEMING: WENHUAZHUANXINGSHIQIDEJUZHU

       AOTUOMANDIGUODESHIJUEWENHUA(15~17SHIJI)

泛亚电竞在线        ELUOSIYUDONGOUDEYISHUYUZHENGZHI

泛亚电竞在线        DANGDAIZHONGGUODEJINJIZHIAI

       ZHONGSHIJIDEXIANGXIANG: SHIJUE、MENGYUYUYAN

       XIJUDEYUZHOU

泛亚电竞在线        SHASHIBIYA,ZAOQIXIJU

       XIANDAIYISHUYUXIANDAIXING

       ……

       HAFOXINTONGSHIJIAOYUJIHUA“WENHUAYUXINYANG”BANKUAIKECHENGNEIRONG:

泛亚电竞在线        LIJIEYISILANYUDANGDAIMUSILINSHEHUI

       XIFANGDETUILIYUXINYANG

       JINGDIANXILAWENMINGZHONGDEYINGXIONGGAINIAN

       CONGXIBOLAISHENGJINGDAOYOUTAIJIAO,CONGJIUYUEDAOJIDUJIAO

泛亚电竞在线        YANJIUFOJIAO,CHUANYUESHIJIANYUKONGJIAN

       ZHONGGUODERICHANGSHENGHUOWENHUAKANJIANJIUSHIXIANGXIN: SHEYINGDELISHI

       FENGKUANGYUYAOWU: XINLIZIXUNLISHISHANGDEZHUTI

泛亚电竞在线        LANGMAN: CONGJIAN·AOSITINGDAOXIAOJIWENXUE

       CONGBULAGEQIYIDAOYURONGGEMING: GONGCHANZHUYIZHIDUXIADEJIEKE

泛亚电竞在线        NACUIYINGYUAN: DISANSHIJIEDEMIHUANCHANWU

       DONGHUA、MANHUA、DIANYINGZHONGDERIBENZONGJIAO

泛亚电竞在线        YADIAN、LUOMAYUFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN: SHENFENDEWENTI

泛亚电竞在线        ……


       HAFOXINTONGSHIJIAOYUJIHUA“WULISHIJIEKEXUE”BANKUAIKECHENGNEIRONG:

       NIWEISHENMETINGDAOYIJITINGDAOSHENME: YINLEYUSHENGYINDEKEXUE

泛亚电竞在线        RUHEDAJIANYIGEKEJUZHUDEYUZHOU

泛亚电竞在线        AIYINSITANGEMING

泛亚电竞在线        SHIJIAN

       NENGLIANGYUZHOU

泛亚电竞在线        SHENMESHISHENGMING: CONGKUAKEDAOYISHI

泛亚电竞在线        KEXUEDEDANWEI: CONGDABAOZHADAOLEILONGJIQITA

       YUANSHIDAOHANG

泛亚电竞在线        KEXUEYUPENGREN: CONGGAOJIPENGRENSHUDAORUANWUZHIKEXUE

       KANBUJIANDESHIJIE

       QIHOU—NENGLIANGTIAOZHAN

       ……


       HAFOXINTONGSHIJIAOYUJIHUA“LUNLITUILI”BANKUAIKECHENGNEIRONG:

泛亚电竞在线        RENQUAN: ZHEXUERUMEN

泛亚电竞在线        ZIWO、ZIYOUYUCUNZAI

泛亚电竞在线        “RUGUOMEIYOUSHANGDI,YIQIEJIEKEYUNXU”: YOUSHENLUNYUDAODETUILI

泛亚电竞在线        JINGDIANZHONGGUOLUNLIYUZHENGZHILILUN

       ZIWO、NINGJINGYUCUIRUO: XIFANGYUDONGFANG

       DAODETUILIYUSHEHUIKANGYI

泛亚电竞在线        ZHENGYI

泛亚电竞在线        ZIYOU

泛亚电竞在线        ZIRAN

       SHENGWULUNLI

       TUOERSITAIYUTUOSITUOYEFUSIJIXIAOSHUOZHONGDEDAODEZHIXUN

       ZHEXUEJIAYUBAOJUN

       YIXUELUNLIYULISHI

泛亚电竞在线        ……


       RUGUOSHUO,DAXUEJIAOYUDEJIAZHIZAIYUWEIYIGERENDEYISHENGTIGONGYIGESHIJIANDUAN,ZAICIQIJIAN,TADEQIUZHIYUZUIWEIWANGSHENG,XINZHIZUIWEIKAIFANG,BINGDEYIYUANLISHEHUIQIUSUCHENGDEYALI,XUEXIRUHEFAWEN,QUHUAIYIJIDINGDEQIANTI,XUEHUITIANMAXINGKONGDESIKAO,NEIME,DANGJIHUQUANRENLEIDEZHISHIYIQIBAIZAITADEYANQIAN,ERTABIXUCONGZHONGXUANCHU32MENZHIDEHUAFEISINIANSHIJIANDEKECHENGSHI,CHULEDUIYUZHEICHANGZHISHIDESHENGYANCHONGMANXINGFENZHIWAI,KONGPAHAIYOUJUDADEKUNHUOYUBUAN。

       21世纪受过教育的人应该具备怎样的素质

泛亚电竞在线        “21SHIJIQIAN25NIAN,HEWEI‘SHOUGUOLIANGHAOJIAOYUDEREN’?”ZHEISHIHAFOWENLIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANYUANZHANGWEILIAN·KEBIZAI2003NIANYICITONGSHIJIAOYUGAIGEHUIYISHANGTICHUDEDIYIGEWENTI。DANGYISUOZOUGUOLEJIN400NIANLISHIDEDAXUEHUITOUSHENSHIZIWOSHI,ZHEISHIYIGEZUIJIANDAN,QUEYEZUIJIANNANDEWENTI。CONG2013NIANKAISHI,HAFODEBENKESHENGQUANMIANTUIXINGYITAOXINDETONGSHIJIAOYUJIHUA(GenEd),YIQUDAI20SHIJI70NIANDAIMOSHEJIDE“HEXINKECHENG”(Core-Curriculum)。

       DUIHAFOXUESHENGLAISHUO,MEIDUGUOSHASHIBIYAGENGKECHI,HAISHIBUZHIDAORANSETIYUJIYINDEQUBIEGENGDIUREN?NAXIEZHISHISHIZHONGYAODAOBIXUJIAOJIMEIGEXUESHENGDE?BIRUZUGOUDUODEJINGJIXUEZHISHIRANGTAMENKANDONGHUAERJIEDECAIWUBAOBIAO,ZUGOUDUODEKEXUESUYANGRANGTAMENDUDONG《KEXUEMEIGUOREN》SHANGDEMEIPIANLUNWEN,HAISHIZUGOUDUODEYOUMOGANRANGTAMENKANDONG《NIUYUEKE》SHANGDEXIAOHUA?

       “SHOUJIAOYU”YUJISHUXUNLIANBUSHIYIHUISHI。YOUQIZAIXIFANG“ZIYOUJIAOYU”(Liberal Education)DESHIYEZHINEI,YIGESHOUGUOJIAOYUDEREN,BIXULIJIEZIJIYIJIZIJIZAISHIJIEZHONGDEWEIZHI——WENHUADEYUZIRANDE——CONGERZHUIQIUYIZHONGFUYOUYIYIDERENSHENG。TAYAOQIUYIZHONGLISHIXINGDESHIJIAO,RANGYIGERENBUZHIYUXIANNIYUYISHIYIDIDEXIANSHIKAOLIANG,HUODEXIANGYIZHI“XIATIANDECANGYING”(AIDEMENGDE·BOKE)。ZHEIYANGDE“JIAOYU”BIRANBAOHANYINGGUO19SHIJIZHUMINGDESHIRENHEXUEZHEMAXIU·ANUODESUOSHUODE“CENGJINGBEILEJIEGUODEYUBEISHUSHUOGUODEZUIHAODEYIQIE”。TABIXULIJIEZHENGTI—RENLEISHIJIEYUTADELISHI,FANYADIANJINGZAIXIANDEWENHUAYUNEIXIEBUTONGYUFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANDEWENHUA,ZIRANSHIJIEYUTANJIUDEFANGFA,LIANGHUADEYUYUYANDEJIQIAO,HAIYOUHUOPODEYISHU。


       JIUXIANGXIAOHUISHANGKEZHEDE“ZHENLI”ERZIYIYANG,“ZIYOUJIAOYU”——ZAIZIYOUTANJIUJINGSHENZHIDAOXIADEBUYUSHEMUBIAO、BUYUZHIYEXIANGGUAGOUDEJIAOYU,SHIHAFODAXUEZAIJIN400NIANDELISHIZHONGYIZHIJIANCHIDEYIGELIXIANG,JINGUANZAIYUELAIYUESHISUHUAHEGONGLIHUADEJINTIAN,ZHEIZHONGJIANCHIYIJINGBIANDEYUELAIYUEJIANNAN。YOUYIZHONGSHUOFASHIZIYOUJIAOYUJIUXIANGJIAOTANG,ZHUANYEJIAOYUZEXIANGYIYUAN。DAJIADOUZHIDAOYIYUANSHIGANSHENMEDE,DANSHUOBUQINGCHUJIAOTANGDAODIYOUSHENMEYONG,DANTAQUESHIHAIYOUMOUZHONGSHENYUANDEYINGXIANGHEZUOYONG,BIRUWEIJIEHEHUIDARENDEZHENZHENGXUYAO。

       HAFOTONGSHIJIAOYUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIJ.HALISIZAIJIEDAILIANGWEIQIANQUQUJINGDEZHONGGUOXUEZHESHISHUO: “ZIYOUJIAOYUDETEDIANSHIYOUKUANYOUSHEN。SUOWEIKUAN,SHIJIAOJIXUESHENGDEZHENGGEZHISHIFANWEI‘KUAN’,SHENZEYIWEIZHEYAOSHENRUGEGEZHUANYE,MEIYIMENKEDOUJIANGJIUSHENDU。”

       CONG20SHIJI40NIANDAIKAISHI,HAFOJIUBABENKESHENGDEKECHENGFENCHENGSANGEBUFEN: ZHUXIUKE、XUANXIUKE、TONGSHIKE(CIWAIHAIYOUXIEZUOKEYUKEWAIHUODONG)。ANZHAOJ.HALISIDESHUOFA,ZHEIXIEDOUSHIHAFOSHI“ZIYOUJIAOYU”DEJIBENYUANSU。ZHUXIUKEZHILIYUPEIYANGXUESHENGDUIMOUYIXUEKEDESHENRULIJIE,ZHEISHIZHUANYEHUASHIDAIDEYAOQIU—ZHIYOUDANGYIGERENSHENRUZUANYANLEMOUYIFUZAXUEKEZHIHOU,BUJINXUEHUIFENXIWENTI,HAIYAONENGHELIDIJIESHIJIEJUEWENTIDEGUOCHENG,CAINENGMINGBAIZHENZHENGDEZHILITANJIUYUTANSUOSHISHENMEYISI。JISHIYIGERENXUESHENGSHIDAIXUANZEDEZHUANYEYUTAWEILAIDESHIYEZHIJIANHAOWUGUANLIAN,HUOZHE20NIANHOUJIANGSUOXUEDEZHUANYEZHISHIQUANBUWANGGUANG,TAZHISHAODONGDEJINGTONGYIMENZHUANYESHIZENMEHUISHI。

       XUANXIUKEZHANSIFENZHIYI,SHIWEILERANGXUESHENGANZIJIDEXINGQUZIYOUTANSUOZHUXIUZHUANYEZHIWAIDEZHISHI,BIRUYIGEWENKESHENGOUERYEHUIYANGWANGXINGKONG,ZHUIWENYUZHOUDABAOZHASHIZENMEHUISHI;HUOZHEYIGEMANNAOZIDAIMADEJISUANJIXIXUESHENGKENENGYEYUANYIXINSHANGYIDIANBEIDUOFEN、MOZHATEHUOYINXIANGPAI。

       SHENGXIASIFENZHISANZESHITONGSHIKE(General Education)。SUOWEITONGSHIKECHENG,JIUSHIXUEXIAOTIGONGJIBENKESHENGDEYIXILIEJICHUKECHENG,XUESHENGBIXUCONGZHONGXUANCHUJIMENZUOWEIBIXIUKE,WULUNTAMENDEZHUANYEHUOXINGQUSHISHENME。

泛亚电竞在线        ZAIHAFO,ZHUXIUKEKEYIRENYIXUAN、RENYIHUAN,LIANZHUANYEYEKEYIHUAN,WEIYOUTONGSHIKESHUYUXIAOFANGZHIDINGBIXIUDE,FEIXUANBUKE。ZHEISHIDAXUEZHUDONGWEIYIGENIANQINGRENDE4NIANQIUXUESHENGYAKAICHUDEYIZHANGGUANJIANCHUFANG,DAIBIAOLEYISUODAXUEDUIYUZHISHIYUJIAOYUZUIJIBENDEZHEXUEYUTAIDU: YIGERENZAIDAXUEQIJIANYINGGAIXUEXIESHENME?SHENMEZHISHIHUOFANGFASHIMEIGEXUESHENGDOUYINGZHANGWODE?DAXUEZUIXIWANGPEIYANGDESHISHENMEYANGDEREN?


泛亚电竞在线        BIRUGELUNBIYADAXUERENWEIYOUXIESHUSHIMEIGERENBIYEZHIQIANDOUYINGGAIDUGUODE,BUSHIRENHEYIBENSHU,ERBIXUSHIHEMA、BOLATU、SUOFUKELESI、AOGUSIDING、KANGDE、HEIGEER、MAKESI、WUERFUDEZHUZUO……WEISHENME?YINWEIZHEIXIESHIZUIXIJUXINGDIJIANGOULE“XIFANG”DEZHUZUOZHE,TAMENDESHUSHIYIXIEZUIZHIJIEDESHEJISHENMESHIRENYIJIRENKEYISHISHENMEDESHU,TAMENYINGGAICHENGWEIMEIGERENDEJIAOYANGDEYIBUFEN。

泛亚电竞在线        HAFODAXUEZERENWEI,BIQIGUDIANMINGZHUHUOZHEZUIQIANYANDEKEXUEZHISHI,MOUXIEXUEWENDEFANGFACAISHIXUESHENGBIXUZHANGWODE,BIRUNIKEYIMEIDUGUOSHASHIBIYADEZUOPIN,DANBIXUZAIJIAOSHOUDEZHIDAOXIAYIPINGLUNHEFENXIDEFANGSHIYANDUGUOJINGDIANWENXUE;NIKEYIBULEJIEFAGUODAGEMINGDELISHI,DANNIDEDONGDERUHEJIANGLISHIZUOWEIYIZHONGTANJIUHELIJIEDEFANGSHI,GUANCHAHEFENXIDANGJINSHIJIEDEZHUYAOWENTI;NIKEYIMEISHANGGUO“JINGJIXUEYUANLI”,QUEBUNENGMEIXIUGUOYIMENTANTAOSHEHUIWENTIJIBENYUANLIDEKECHENG。YIGEZHEXUEXIDEXUESHENGYINGGAINENGLIJIEWULIXUEDEJIBENGUANDIAN: ZHEIGESHIJIESHIYIGELIXINGDE、KEYUZHIDEXITONG,FANYADIANJINGZAIXIANKEYITONGGUOJINGYANFAXIANQIGUILV;ERYIGECHUANZHEBAIDAGUAZAISHIYANSHILIDAOGUXIBAODESHENGWUXIXUESHENGYINGGAIJUBEIZUIJIBENDEDAODETUILINENGLI,YIYINGDUIWEILAIKENENGZAOYUDEDAODEKUNJING。ZHEISHIHAFOYUNXINGLE30DUONIANDETONGSHIJIAOYUXITONG——“HEXINKECHENG”DEJIBENGUANDIAN: ZAIYIGEZHISHIBAOZHADESHIDAI,BENKEJIAOYUDEZHONGXINBIXUCONGJUTIZHISHIDEHUOQUZHUANHUADAO“HUOQUZHISHIDEFANGFAYUTUJING”。

       HAFOZHUMINGDE“ZHENGYIKE”JIUSHIYIMEN“HEXINKECHENG”。ZAIDIYIJIEKEDEMOWEI,SANGDEERJIAOSHOUJIUDUIXUESHENGFACHULEJINGGAO: ZHEIMENKEBINGMEIYOUJIAOJINIRENHEXINDEZHISHI,ERSHITONGGUOJIANGNIYUANBENSHUZHIDESHIWUBIANDEMOSHENG,JIYUNILINGYIZHONGKANDAISHIWUDEFANGFA。“ZHEISHIYIZHONGFENGXIAN: YIDANNEIXIESHUXIDEDONGXIBIANMOSHENGLE,JIUZAIYEBUHUIHEYIQIANYIYANGLE。”TASHUO,“ZIWOZHISHIJIUXIANGSHIQUDETIANZHEN—WULUNZHEIRANGNIDUOMEBUAN,NIYEBUKENENGZAIHUITOU。”

泛亚电竞在线        30NIANQIAN,HAFO“HEXINKECHENG”DESHEJIZHEHENGLI·LUOSUOFUSIDUIYU“HEWEIYIGESHOUGUOLIANGHAOJIAOYANGDEREN”YOUZHEMINGXIDEJIEDING: NENGQINGXIERYOUXIAODISIKAOHEXIEZUO;ZAIMOUXIEZHISHILINGYUJUYOUJIAOGAODECHENGJIU;DUIYUZHOU、SHEHUIJIRENLEIZISHENYOUSHENSUIDELIJIE;QINYUSIKAOLUNLIDAODEWENTI,JUYOUMINGZHIDEPANDUANLIHEJUEZELI;JUYOUFENGFUDESHENGHUOJINGYAN,DUIYUSHIJIEGEZHONGWENHUAJISHIDAIYOUSHENKEDERENSHI。

JINTIAN,HAFORENWEI,“HEXINKECHENG”YIJINGGUOSHILE——JIRANZHIYOU10%DEHAFOXUESHENGHUIXUANZEYIXUESHUWEIYE,ER60%HUIJINRUSHANGYE、LVSHI、YIXUEDENGZHIYELINGYU,WEISHENMEHAIYAOHUAFEINEIMEDUODEJINGLISHITUBATAMENSUZAOCHENGXUEZHE、JIAOSHOUNI?DANDUIYUWEILAIDELVSHI、YISHENG、SHANGRENMEN,ZHEIGEHUIJULESHIJIESHANGZUIDUOTIANCAIDEDAXUE,QUEWUFAWEI21SHIJIQIAN25NIANDE“LIANGHAOJIAOYU”KAICHUYIFENMINGQUEDEQINGDAN。DUICI,HAFOTONGSHIJIAOYUGAIGEWEIYUANHUIDECHENGYUANZHIYI、YINGYUXIJIAOSHOULUYISI·MEINADE(LouisMenand)SHIZHEIYANGFENXIDE: “ZAIZHISHIZHUANYEHUAYUYANYULIEDESHIDAI,JUEDABUFENJIAOSHOUDOUSHIZHUANMENXUEKEDEZHUANJIA,TAMENZAIZIJIDELINGYUYOUZUGOUDEQUANWEI,TAMENNENGGAOSUNI,RUHECAINENGCHENGWEIYINGYUJIAOSHOU、WULIXUEJIA、JINGJIXUEJIADENGDENG,DANDUIYUYIGE‘PUTONGDEZHISHIHEXIN’,HUOZHE‘SUOYOURENDOUYINGGAIZHIDAODEZHISHI’,TAMENYIYANGKUNHUO,BUKENENGZAIRENHEJUNEIRONGSHANGDACHENGGONGSHI,ZHEIBUSHITAMENDEGUANCHANGSIWEI。”


       自由选修制: 艾略特的改革

       1869NIAN,35SUIDEHUAXUEJIACHAERSI·AILVETESHANGRENWEIHAFODAXUEXINXIAOZHANG。YIGEYINTIANDEXIAWU,TAZAIMASHENGJIANQIAODEJIAOHUIFABIAOJIUZHIYANJIANG,XINXINSHIZUDIXUANBUHAFODEJIAOYUNEIRONGJIANGFUGAIQUANRENLEIDEZHISHI。

       RENMENZAIWUXIUZHIDIZHENGLUNYUYAN、ZHEXUE、SHUXUEHUOZIRANKEXUESHIFOUNENGHENHAODIXUNLIANXUESHENGDEXINZHI,ZIYOUJIAOYUYINGGAIYIWENXUESUYANGHAISHIKEXUESUYANGWEIZHU。RUJINZHEIYANGDEZHENGLUNDUIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANYIJINGMEIYOULEXIANSHIYIYI。HAFORENWEI,WENXUEYUZIRANKEXUEZHIJIANBINGMEIYOUSHIZHIXINGDECHONGTU。HAFOBINGBURENWEIYIDINGYAOZAISHUXUEHEGUDIANWENXUE、ZIRANKEXUEHUOXINGERSHANGXUEZHIJIANZUOCHUQUSHE。FANYADIANJINGZAIXIANJIANGJIANSHOUBINGXU,GEQUSUOZHANG。

       ZAI《HAFOSHIJI: DUANZAOYISUOGUOJIADAXUE》ZHONG,LISHIXUEZHELICHADE·NUODUN·SHIMISIXIEDAO,“1869NIANSHITONGYANGKEYIKANZUOXIANDAIMEIGUODEQIDIANDENIANFEN”--NANBEIZHANZHENGGANGJIESHUMEIDUOJIU,HENGGUANMEIZHOUDALUDETIELUYUZHEIYINIANJIANCHENG,MEIGUOGONGYEZHENGYILINGRENXUANMUDESUDUFAZHAN。ZHEIGEGUOJIAXUYAOGEZHONGGEYANGDEZHUANJIA: XUYAOGONGCHENGSHIJIANSHEQIAOLIANG;XUYAODIZHIXUEJIACONGDIQIUDEWAIQIAOZHONGHUODEKUANGWUBAOZANG;XUYAOSHEHUIKEXUEJIAJILIANGZHEIZHONGSHIRENTOUHUNYANHUADEFAZHANJIRENLEIZAOCHENGDEHUAFEI;XUYAOXINLIXUEJIATANCERENLEIYINZANGDEGEZHONGDONGJI;XUYAOLIFAZHEHEGUANLIZHEZHANGWOZHUANMENDEZHISHI、SHIXINGDUOSHURENDETONGZHI……

泛亚电竞在线        ZAIKAIFAXINDALUDEGUOCHENGZHONG,CHONGSHANGSHIYONGZHUYIDEMEIGUORENDUIZHEIXIE“YOUYONGDEZHISHI”YOUYIZHONGTIANRANDEZUNZHONG。1862NIAN,MEIGUOLIANBANGZHENGFUZHENGSHIBANBU《MOLIERZENGDIFAAN》,GULIGEZHOULIYONGZENGDIDEZIJINJIANZAOYINONGGONGJISHUWEIZHUDEYINGYONGXINGDAXUE。YIDAPIZHOULIDAXUEYINGYUNERSHENG,BIRUWEISIKANGXINGDAXUE、KANGNAIERDAXUE、JIALIFUNIYADAXUEDOUSHIZHUMINGDEZENGDIDAXUE,TAMENZAIKECHENGSHANGBINGBUPAICHIGUDIANRENWENKEMU,DANJIAOXUEDEZHONGXINQUEFANGZAIPEIYANGNONGGONGSHIYONGRENCAIFANGMIAN,YIZIRANKEXUEDEYINGYONGWEIZHUZHI,“XIANGSHEHUIDEGONGYEHESHENGCHANJIEJITIGONGZUIHAODESHESHI,YISHITAMENHUODESHIYONGZHISHIHEJINGSHENWENHUA”。

泛亚电竞在线        YUZHIXIANGDUIDE,XINYINGGELANDEGULAOFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANRENGRANSIQICHENCHEN,BUDUANZHONGFUCHENJIUKECHENGDECHUANTONGHAIZAIYANXU,BEISONGRENGSHIZUIZHONGYAODEJIAOXUEFANGFA,QIANGPOSHIDEWENDAZESHISHISHENGZHIJIANZUIJIBENDEHUDONG。SHANGDAXUEDERENKOUBILIZAIGUOQUJISHINIANLIYIZHICHENGXIAJIANGQUSHI,RENMENPUBIANGANDAOGAODENGJIAOYUDEJIAZHIZAIXIAJIANG。1858NIANRUXUEDEHENGLI·YADANGSIZAIZICHUANZHONGHUIYIZIJIDEHAFOSUIYUE: “HAFOJIAOJIXUESHENGDEDONGXIBINGBUDUO(DANGRANYEMEIYOUJIAOJIXUESHENGTAIDUOHUAIDEDONGXI)PANGSINIANHAFOFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANDEXUEXISHENGYA,DAOZUIHOUNIXINZHONGHUILIUXIAYIPIANKONGBAI,YIGEXINLINGDESHUIYIN。”

泛亚电竞在线        SHISHISHANG,ZAIZUICHU200DUONIANDELISHIZHONG,HAFOFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANDEKECHENGJIHUMEIYOUGAIBIANGUO: LUOJIXUE、XIUCIXUE、XILAYU、XIBOLAIYU、LUNLIXUE、XINGERSHANGXUE,ZAIJIAYIDIANSHUXUEHEZIRANKEXUEZHISHI。ZHEIXIEZHISHIGEZIFENGONGMINGQUE—XUESHENGDELUOJINENGLIYOUSHUXUEPEIYANG,QIPINWEIYIKAOXILAYUHEXIBOLAIYUDEJINGDIANZHUZUOLAISUZAO,YANJIANGNENGLIYOULAIYUXIUCIXUE,TAMENDELIXIANGZETONGGUOJIDUJIAOLUNLIYANGCHENG。ZUIZHONGDEMUBIAOZESHIPEIYANGJIDUJIAOGONGMINDEXINZHIYUPINGE,SHITAMENXINFENGSHANGDI,HUODEZHENLIYUZIYOU。

       NEISHIYIGEJIANDAN、QINGXIERMINGQUEDESHIJIE--RENLEIZHISHIDETIXISHIWENDINGERWANZHENGDE,ZHENLISHIJUEDUIDE、YONGHENGDE,DAXUEDEMUDEJIUSHIBAOCUNTAMEN,BINGCHUANSHOUJIXIAYIDAI。

CONG18SHIJIKAISHI,SUIZHEZIRANKEXUEDEFAZHAN,RENLEIZHISHIKAISHIJIJUKUOZHANG。ZAIOUZHOU,YOUQISHIDEGUODEDAXUEZAIBINGQISHENXUEYINGXIANGZHIHOUZHUJIANXINGCHENGLEZHUANYEDEXUESHUFENGONG,SHUXUE、WULI、SHENGWU、HUAXUE、TIANWENXUE、SHEHUIXUE、XINLIXUEDENGZHONGDUOZIRANHESHEHUIKEXUEDEXUEKERIYIXINGCHENGLEYIGEZIWOWANSHAN、XIANGDUIFENGBIDEXUEKETIXI。BIQIJIUZHISHIDECHUANCHENG,XINZHISHIDECHUANGZAOCHENGLEXIANDAIDAXUEGENGZHONGYAODERENWU。


       LINGYIFANGMIAN,DUI“MEIGERENDOUSHIKEYISHOUJIAOYUDE”ZHEIYIGUANNIANDEQUEXIN,SHIDEGAODENGJIAOYUZHUJIANCONGZUOWEISHEHUIHEZHISHIJINGYINGBAOLIUDETEQUANBIANWEIYIZHONGPUFANXINGDERENQUAN,YOUQIZAIMEIGUOZHEIYANGYIGEKAOJIAOYULIGUODEGUOJIALI。CONGYIKAISHI,ZHISHIJIUSHITONGWANGZIYOUYUCAIFUBIBUKESHAODETIAOJIAN。TUOMASI·JIEFEIXUNCENGSHUO: “YIGEGUOJIARUGUOZHIWANGZIJIZAIWENMINGZHONGJIYUCHUNWUZHIYOUNENGDEDAOZIYOU,NEIMETASUONENGZHIWANGDE,SHINAIGUOQUCONGWEIYOUGUOJIANGLAIYEBUHUIYOUDE。”

       ZAIHAFOYUANYUMASHENGDAJIEDEJIAOJIECHU,Dexter(DAIKESITE)MENSHANGRENGRANZHUKEZHEAILVETEXIAOZHANG100NIANQIANDETICI,WAICEXIEZHE“JINRUBENDAXUE,ZAIZHIHUIZHONGCHENGZHANG”,NEICEZEXIEZHE“LIKAIHOUFUWUGUOJIAYURENLEI”。ZHENGSHITADIYIGEDAPOLEHAFOYUJULIEBIANHUADEWAIBUSHIJIEZHIJIANDEGEJUEZHUANGKUANG。TADERENMING,BUJINCHENGLEHAFO,YECHENGLEDANGSHIMEIGUOGAODENGJIAOYUDEYIGEGUANJIANZHUANZHEDIAN—KEXUEJIANGCHENGWEIWEILAIDAXUEDEJISHI,GUDIANWENKEDEZHONGXINDIWEIJIANGBEIDIANFU,ERHAFOJIANGCONGYIGEGULAODE、DIFANGXINGDEZONGJIAOFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN(XUESHENG500MING,JIAOSHI23REN),BIANCHENGYISUOQUANGUOXINGDEXIANDAIYANJIUXINGDAXUE。CIHOU,YELUDAXUE、GELUNBIYADAXUEDENGYEFENFENXIAOFANG,WANCHENGYOUZAOQIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANXIANGYANJIUXINGDAXUEDEZHUANBIAN。

       YIWEIJIAOYUEHAN·LIDEDEHAFOXUESHENGZHEIYANGHUIYIAILVETERENXIAOZHANGSHIQIDEHAFOXIAOYUANSHENGHUO: “AILVETEXIAOZHANGLINGDAODEHAFODUYIWUER。GERENZHUYIZHIFENGSHENGXING: YIGERENRUGUOZHITUWANLE,YIWUSUOHUO,YEKEYISHUNLITONGGUOKAOSHIBIYE;DANLINGYIFANGMIAN,RENHERENDOUKEYICONGQUANSHIJIEDEZHISHIBAOKUZHONGJIQUTAXIANGYAODEYIQIEYINGYANG。BENKESHENGJIHUWURENGUANZHI,TAMENKEYIZHUZAIRENHETAMENXIANGZHUDEDIFANG,ZUOTAMENXIANGZUODESHIQING—ZHIYAOSHANGKEJIUXING。XIAOFANGCONGBUDASUANBAXUESHENGZUZHIQILAIHUOZHEQIANGDIAORENHEXINGSHIDETONGYI。YOUXIERENLAISHANGXUE,KOUDAILIZHUANGZHEYINIAN1.5WANMEIYUANDELINGHUAQIAN,KAIZHECHEDAIZHEPUREN,ZHUZAIGAODANGGONGYUDEHAOHUATAOFANG,ERTONGBANDEQITARENQUEZAIGELOULIAIE。”


泛亚电竞在线        ZAIDUIBENKESHENGDEJIAOXUESHANG,AILVETECAIQUDESHIZUIFANGRENZIYOUDEYIZHONGFANGSHI—JIANGSUOYOUDEKECHENGXIANGSUOYOUDEXUESHENGKAIFANG,QUXIAOYIQIEBIXIUKECHENG,RANGXUESHENGWANQUANGENJUXINGQUXUANZEXUEXINEIRONG。YINWEITAXIANGXIN,19SUIHUO20SUIDENIANQINGRENYINGGAIZHIDAOTAMENZUIXIHUANSHENME,ZUISHIHEXUEXISHENME。JISHIWUSUOAI,ZHISHAOYEYINGGAIYOUSUOE。YINGBAYIGEXUESHENGTUIXIANGTAMEIYOUNENGLIHUOZHEMEIYOUXINGQUDELINGYUQUXUEXISHIYUCHUNDE。

泛亚电竞在线        ZAITASHANGRENZHIQIAN,HAFOXUESHENGDEXUEXIXUANZEQUANWEIHUQIWEI。KEMUDABUFENSHIBIXIUKE,WEIYIKEXUANDEZHIYOUZIRANKEXUEYUXIANDAIYUWEN。RUGUONIXIANGXUANXIULADINGWEN,WULUNSHANGDAXUESHILADINGWENYOUDUOHAO,DOUBIXUDENGDAOSANNIANJI—JIUYINWEINEISHIWEISANNIANJIXUESHENGZHUNBEIDEKECHENG。1909NIAN,DANGTA40NIANDEXIAOZHANGSHENGYAZOUDAOJINTOUSHI,BIXIUKEZHISHENGXIALEYINIANJIXINSHENGDEYINGYUXIEZUOKEHEWAIYUKE,ER、       SAN、SINIANJIDEXUESHENGKEYIWANQUANZIYOUDIXUANZEKECHENG。

泛亚电竞在线        AILVETENIANQINGSHICENGJINGYOUXUEDEGUO,ZIYOUXUANXIUZHIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGXIANRANSHOUDAODEGUODAXUE“XUESHUZIYOU”SIXIANGDEYINGXIANG。TARENWEIDAXUESHISHIJIESHANGZUIRONGBUDEDUCAIZHEDEDIFANG。LINGYIFANGMIANYOUSHICHUYUFEICHANGMEIGUOSHIDESHIYONGZHUYIDEMUDE: ZHENGSHITONGGUOZIYOUXUANXIUZHI,TACAIDEYIJIANGDALIANGZHUANYE、SHIYONGDEZHISHINARUDAOHAFODEKECHENGZHIZHONG。LIRU,YUYANXUEDEXUEXIBUZAIJUXIANYUXILAYUHELADINGYUDECHUANTONG,ERSHIJIARULEDONGFANGYUYAN、DEYU、FAYU、YIDALIYU,YIJIXIANDAIYINGYU。HAFOFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANDEKECHENGDALIANGKUOCHONG,CONGYUANLAIDE70DUOMENKECHENGZENGJIADAO400DUOMEN。TAHAICHUANGZAOXINGDITICHULE“KEMU”DEGAINIAN——BAOKUOKEMUMINGCHENGHEBIANHAO,GONGGENIANJIXUESHENGXUANXIU。XUEFENZHIYEYOUCIERSHENG。SUGELADISHIDEJIAOXUEFAYESHICONGZHEIGESHIHOUKAISHIDE: JIAOSHIBUZAIYIGERENZAIJIANGTAISHANGTAOTAOBUJUEDILANGDUHUOYANJIANG,ERSHITONGGUOJIELIANBUDUANDITIWEN、ZHIYI,QIFAXUESHENGDUIMOUGEWENTIDESIKAO、TAOLUN、ZHENGLUN。


泛亚电竞在线        SHANGRENZHIQIAN,AILVETECENGZAI《DAXIYANGYUEKAN》SHANGLIANGDUZHUANWENHUYU“XINJIAOYU”,TICHULETADEMEIGUODAXUEGUAN: “MEIGUODAXUEHAIWEICONGBENYOUDETURANGSHANGSHENGZHANGCHULAI,MEIGUODAXUEYIDANCHUXIAN,JUEBUYINGGAISHIWAIGUOXUEFUDEFANBAN;YEBUYINGGAIRUTONGNUANFANGZHONGDEZHIWU,ERSHICONGMEIGUOSHEHUIXISUJIZHENGZHIHUANJINGZHONGMANMANZIRANERXINGCHENGDECHANPIN,TIGONGJIYIBANRENSHIXIANTADERENSHENGMUBIAO,YEMANZUYINGCAIDEXIONGXINZHUANGZHI。MEIGUODEFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANSHIDUTEDE,MEIGUODEDAXUEYEJIANGSHIYUANCHUANGDE,MEIYOULEISIHUOXIANGTONGDEXUEFUKEYIYUZHIPINGXINGBIJIAO。”

       1894NIAN,SHANGREN25NIANHOU,AILVETEYIJINGCHUANGZAOCHUYISUOZHANXINDEMEIGUODAXUE。TABUJINSHIMEIGUOZUIGULAODEDAXUE,TONGSHIYESHIZUIFUYOUDEDAXUE。TATIGONGDEKECHENGBIQITADAXUEDOUDUO,RENKEDESHIMEIGUOZUIPANGDA、ZUISHOURENZUNJINGDEYIZHIJIAOZHIYUANDUIWU。TAZHESHOUGAIZAOLESHUAIBAIDEFAFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN、YIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN,YOUYU1872NIANJIANLILEWENLIYANJIUSHENGYUAN,ZUOWEISHISHENGMENJINYIBUTANSUOGAOSHENXUEWENDECHANGSUO,CINIANBANFALEDIYIGEZHEXUEBOSHIXUEWEI。ZAIDANGSHIMEIGUO1000MINGYILIUDEKEXUEJIAZHONG,YOU237RENBIYEYUHAFO,171RENBIYEYUYUEHAN·HUOPUJINSIDAXUE,93RENBIYEYUYELU。

       BUGUO,ZAI《ZHISHIDEZIYOUSHICHANG》YISHUZHONG,LUYISI·MEINADEJIAOSHOURENWEI,AILVETEDUIMEIGUODAXUEZUIJUDUCHUANGXINGDEYIXIANGGAIZAOSHI,ZAIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN(BENKE)ZHISHANGJIAODIETIANSHELEZHIYEYANJIUSHENGYUAN,ZHIYOUJINGGUOBENKEXUEXI,HUODEXUESHIXUEWEIDEXUESHENGCAIYOUJIHUIJINRUZHIYEYANJIUSHENGYUAN,BIRUSHANGFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN、FAFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN、YIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN,WANCHENGZHIYEXUNLIAN。ZAICIZHIQIAN,HAFODEZHIYEFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANRENGRANZUNXUNZHEGULAODEXUETUZHI,FAFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANZHIYAOZHUXIAOMAN18GEYUEJIKEHUOQUXUEWEI,YIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIANXUESHENGZHIYAOSHANGGUOLIANGGEXUEQIDEKECHENG,GENSUIGUOYIGEYISHENGSHIXI,JIUKEYICHENGWEIYIXUEBOSHI。

       JUSHUOWEILIAN·ZHANMUSIZAIHAFOYIFANYADIANJINGZAIXIAN(1864NIANRUXUE)DUSHUSHI,QIMOKAOSHIZHIYOUYIDAOKOUSHITI: “RUGUONINENGHUIDAZHEIGEWENTI,JIUNENGHUIDARENHEWENTI!XIANZAI,QINGGAOSUWONIDEJIATINGYIJIJIALIDEQINGKUANGZENMEYANG?”ZHEIGEKANSIBUQIYANDEGAIDONG,CHENGLEMEIGUONEIZHANHOUGAODENGJIAOYUDEGUANJIANBIANGE: YIFANGMIANZAIRIJIANGONGLIHUA、SHISUHUADESHEHUILIBAOLIULEYINGSHIGUDIANZIYOUJIAOYUDEJINGSUI—BENKEDEXUEXIYINGGAIBAOZHEDANCHUNDEQIUZHIZHIXIN,WEIZHISHIERZHISHI;LINGYIFANGMIANYOUYINGHELESHEHUIDEXUQIU,DADATAIGAOLEMOUXIEZHIYEJIECENGDESHEHUIDIWEI—WEILAIDEYISHENG、LVSHI、SHANGRENMENBIXUJINGGUOSINIANZIYOUJIAOYUDEXUNTAO,CAINENGZHUANXINXUEXIMOUSHENGSUOXUDEZHISHI。

       ZHIYOUZHEIYANG,CAINENGRUAILVETESUOYUAN,PEIYANGCHUGONGYESHEHUIDELINGXIU,“SHIGANJIA、NENGZUOCHUCHENGJIUDEREN,TAMENCHENGGONGDESHIYESHENGYAKEYIDADAZENGJINGONGGONGFUZHI”,ERBUSHI“ZHEIGESHIJIEWUJINGDACAIDEGUANCHAJIA、CHUNCUIDESHENGHUOYOUXIDEPANGGUANZHE,HUOZHENEIXIEDUIBIERENDELAODONGGUOFENTIAOTIDEPINGLUNJIA”。TARENWEI,ZHEISHIYISUODAXUEDUIJIJIANGLAILINDEMEIGUODOUSHISHEHUIYIJIGONGYESHEHUIBIXUCHENGDANDEZEREN。

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